The following courses must be successfully completed before graduation.
AN101 Human Anatomy
Consists of lectures covering the human body and incorporates adult human gross anatomical content. All content is presented using a case based, integrated approach. Human Anatomy focuses on the structural and functional relationships within the back, head, neck, upper and lower limb regions. Anatomical content is closely integrated with that of other courses presented.
BM220 Clinical Biomechanics
Introduces clinical biomechanical principles and properties of the spine. Students are introduced to the mechanical concepts of basic body mechanics, as well as some advanced topics involving moment calculation. Emphasis is placed on how these principles apply to manual osteopathic therapy. The biomechanics of osteopathy techniques are covered through examination of research publications. The biomechanics of the joints of the upper and lower limbs, lumbar, cervical and thoracic spine are examined to explain how pathologies develop. Due to the preponderance of low back pain, detailed attention is given to lumbar spine functional anatomy, lumbar spine pathomechanics, and the concept of lumbar spine stability. With these topics in mind, treatment and prevention strategies which are supported by laboratory research are examined.
MO221 Manual Osteopathy Skills
Coordinated with Biomechanics (BM220) and provides tutorial laboratory instruction to develop the skills necessary to locate all points of surface anatomy pertinent to a physical examination. Students learn to determine normal and abnormal biomechanics and to perform palpation, motion palpation and static joint challenge.
MO246 Osteopathy Principles and Professional Ethics
Introduces the historical and contemporary approach to health emphasising aspects unique to the osteopathy profession. Different models of health care are explored. This is a program designed to prepare students to explore issues related to the philosophy, art, and science, as well as the sociology of osteopathy. Material on professionalism, informed consent and ethics introduces students to a practical understanding of professional ethics and the terminology, issues, and consequences related to this area of student and professional life. The unique ethical responsibilities of the health professional student and practitioner are explored.
MO318 Manual Osteopathy Clinical Practice
Begins with a comprehensive introduction to the structure and function of NAO’s clinical teaching environment, followed by instruction in the theory and application of evidence based clinical practice. Students are exposed to the skills required to effectively retrieve, critically appraise, and apply current health care information and literature. Throughout the program, students review selected readings in clinical osteopathy theory. The course’s practical component integrates skills and knowledge learned including interviewing, informed consent, and clinical examination skills.
PA366 Clinical Pathology
Presents the basic mechanisms involved in cell death, necrosis, inflammation and repair, and neoplasia. Pathological principles of disease processes are discussed so that students may understand the clinical manifestations of disease and the rationale for treatment.
Clinico-pathological correlations will be emphasized where applicable. This course also provides students with an understanding of disease processes. Specifically, the etiology and pathogenesis of the major diseases affecting each individual body system are presented. Where applicable, areas of current research into the etio-pathogenesis of disease are highlighted.
PH414 Systems Physiology
Teaches the physiology of body fluids, blood, and the cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. The function and control of all major organ systems are discussed, as are cell physiology and mechanisms at the cellular and subcellular levels. Muscle performance, training, and fitness assessments are also discussed. The course encourages problem solving and the application of physiological principles to manual osteopathy practice.
MO420 Manual Osteopathy Techniques
Provides laboratory instruction to develop proficiency in general and specific spinal and extremity manual techniques. Students learn how to deliver techniques with the focus on control, direction, speed and depth of pressure. Emphasis is placed on competence in conducting an analysis (including all forms of static and motion palpation procedures) of the spine, pelvis, and extremities to arrive at a clinical impression that will enable accurate determination of the appropriate manual procedure. Screening procedures and the importance of informed consent are discussed, and the student is taught soft tissue therapy, joint mobilization, myofascial release, facilitated positional release, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, neuromuscular retraining, lymphatic, osteoarticular and other manual techniques.
MO517 Manual Osteopathy Practice: Business, law, Jurisprudence
Acquaints students with their rights and obligations together with, and more importantly, the rights and obligations of the patient. Emphasis is placed on risk management, informed consent, osteopathy legal issues, ethics and the law, the patient-therapist relationship, writing a medical-legal report, and practice management. This course familiarizes students with the relationship between manual osteopathy practice and the law.
CL628 Clinical Internship
As manual osteopathy interns, students assume patient care under the supervision of primary clinical faculty members within NAO’s clinic. NAO operates a student clinic in North York, Ontario.
In addition to developing and maintaining a patient practice under the supervision of registered clinicians, the interns attend and participate in clinical rounds where special interest and topics and investigative research or issues are discussed. Clinical rounds provide opportunities for the intern to engage in enhanced critical thinking and application of the concepts of best practice. Complementary programs are offered, such as those associated with business skills.
Clinical faculty support the development of the interns’ written and oral communications, physical examinations and psychomotor skills.
Helps students understand the nature of normal musculoskeletal tissues and their response to injury. Students approach the musculoskeletal system regionally from the perspective of relevant clinical anatomy, pathology, biomechanics, diagnostic categories, current diagnostic tests and treatment strategies. The laboratory section of the course provides the student with skills in performing a focused orthopedic examination as the basis for an accurate diagnosis.
DS720 Diagnosis and Symptomatology
Teaches the general principles of clinical diagnosis through a lecture and laboratory format. Students are taught basic skills in history-taking and physical examination procedures with an emphasis on interviewing skills and vital signs. This course emphasizes therapist-patient interactions, the importance of informed consent, and the use of standard diagnostic procedures.
This course enables students to develop systematic analytical and diagnostic skills. Students work through history, physical examination, special tests, and plan the management of several osteopathic cases under the guidance of a clinician.
Students also study the diagnosis of disorders of the various body systems at an advanced level. Emphasis is placed on etiology, pathology, signs and symptoms, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Areas of study include disorders of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems, as well as dermatology, eyes, ears, nose and throat (EENT), hematology, allergic reactions, and immunology. Particular attention is focused on knowledge of those disease processes which confront the primary contact osteopathic manual practitioner.
Studies the symptoms and signs of a broad range of common neurological disorders with particular emphasis on those conditions which are frequently seen by osteopathic manual practitioners. Students attain the knowledge and skills required to conduct a neurological examination and to correlate clinical neurological findings with other diagnostic data.
NU820 Clinical and Sports Nutrition
The course discusses the basic principles of health, nutrition and wellness, involving the chemistry and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. It also presents the basic food groups and the fundamentals of assessing nutritional status, and introduces clinical examples and methods of practice implementation.
TE 910 Therapeutic Exercise
In this course students learn how to prescribe certain joint specific therapeutic exercises accomplish the following goals: Enable ambulation, release contracted muscles, tendons, and fascia, mobilize joints, improve circulation, improve respiratory capacity, improve coordination, reduce rigidity, improve balance, promote relaxation, improve muscle strength and, if possible, achieve and maintain maximal voluntary contractile force (MVC), and improve exercise performance and functional capacity (endurance).
TH 980 Investigative Project - Thesis
Students begin work on an investigative project to be finished prior to graduation. Students register a clinical research topic. The registered research project for this class must be a literature synthesis. This course is self directed.
CP 872 Clinical Psychology
This course provides students with the necessary background to identify psychological problems and respond to them effectively. Emphasis is placed on understanding the full spectrum of normal and abnormal behaviours with a specific focus on the syndromes most commonly met in osteopathy practice. Students are introduced to clinical observation, systematic inquiry and management of these patients within the context of an osteopathic manual practice.